This brief draws on a review of relevant policy and budget documents and interviews with experts to present information about the financing of informal settlement upgrading in metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. Understanding how this process works enables civil society and local residents to engage with all three levels of government on whether enough money has been set aside for informal settlement upgrading and whether metropolitan municipalities have used funding appropriately.
In global comparisons, South Africa meets the average amount of government expenditure allocated to services like education, health, and housing by similar middle-income countries. Yet South Africa has been the site of thousands of community protests, commonly known as “service delivery protests” that are the result of growing frustration with the type, quantity, and quality of services received by the country’s poor. This is certainly what is driving the mobilization of the residents of Cape Town’s informal settlements to get the city government to address the lack of adequate sanitation facilities, and the shocking condition of those that are being provided.
The crisis of governance in South Africa is not just about poor service delivery, it is also about the failure of institutions and processes designed to facilitate meaningful dialogue between government and the people.
IBP’s goal for our work in South Africa is improved service delivery to poor communities through more effective and efficient budget implementation. We pursue this goal by supporting grassroots campaigns that strengthen and integrate the oversight and accountability system.
IBP is pursuing four specific objectives in its work in South Africa:
- Improve the provision and dissemination of budget and service delivery information.
- Improve the quality of CSO engagement with government at the point of service delivery.
- Support the formation of pro-accountability coalitions.
- Support the replication of our CSO partners’ campaigns
News & Highlights
Like their counterparts around the world, CSOs in South Africa need access to disaggregated budget data to be able to monitor budgeting for and expenditure on the delivery of services, such as basic education. But they struggle to find out whether the data they need is being produced or published, in which format, and by whom. Through conversations with these CSOs, IBP South Africa collected a range of education-related budget information requests and commissioned Cornerstone Economic Research to assess the availability of disaggregated budget data that responds to the requests. Download the report of what they found along with an accompanying report with background information on how education is funded in South Africa.
The Social Justice Coalition (SJC) is a coalition of civil society organizations in the informal settlement of Khayelitsha in Cape Town. Soon after it was formed in 2008, SJC heard reports from many residents that the lack of adequate toilet facilities resulted in people being assaulted, raped, and murdered when relieving themselves. There were also several other reported problems related to sanitation. SJC estimated that at least 500,000 residents of informal settlements in Cape Town did not have access to adequate sanitation. In 2010 SJC therefore launched the Clean and Safe Sanitation Campaign, which aims to ensure that the City Council properly maintains existing toilets and also provide additional clean and safe sanitation facilities in informal settlements.
Equal Education (EE) is a national membership based organization with branches in schools, universities, and parent organizations. EE’s immediate goal is to ensure the delivery of adequate school infrastructure in South Africa’s nine provinces – the level of government assigned responsibility for basic education services. The first step of their campaign was to get the national Department of Basic Education to promulgate minimum standards for school infrastructure; something that they had neglected to do since 1994. Now that these minimum standards are in place, EE wants to play a role in ensuring that they are implemented in the time-frame set by government so that learners benefit from adequate physical infrastructure. IBP’s work with EE will focus on the Eastern Cape, a province where many schools are still no more than dilapidated mud structures.
Ndifuna Ukwazi (NU) is a group of activists who use research and litigation to campaign for justice and equality in poor and working class communities. NU supports social justice organizations through strategic research and also by training and mentoring young leaders and activists. The research and litigation support provided by NU centers around two core areas of work. The first is open and participatory budgets which is about promoting public engagement with government budgets and monitoring budget implementation. The second focus area is safety, policing and justice which includes the independent monitoring of policing as well as research that supports oversight bodies and community engagement. NU has provided extensive support to SJC’s Clean and Safe Sanitation campaign.
Work by Our Partners
Social Justice Coalition and Ndifuna Ukwazi
Our Toilets Are Dirty
- Our Toilets Are Dirty – Report
- Our Toilets Are Dirty – Press Release
- Our Toilets Are Dirty – Video Documentary (short version)
- Activists to Sonnenberg: City must engage constructively on sanitation
- The Social Justice Coalition Uses Social Audit to Clean Up Sanitation Issues in Cape Town
Submission on the City’s 2015/2016 draft budget
- An Unfair Budget: Dignity, Equality, and the Right to Sanitation
- Mayor de Lille, here’s your evidence. It’s time for action.
- City’s water and sanitation budget not pro-poor – SJC
Publications and Resources
- How are Upgrades to Informal Settlements Financed in Metropolitan Municipalities? (March 2017): This brief draws on a review of relevant policy and budget documents and interviews with experts to present information about the financing of informal settlement upgrading in metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. Understanding how this process works enables civil society and local residents to engage with all three levels of government on whether enough money has been set aside for informal settlement upgrading and whether metropolitan municipalities have used funding appropriately.
- Comments and Recommendations on Data Requests on Public Funding of Basic Education in South Africa (January 2017): IBP South Africa commissioned Cornerstone Economic Research to assess the availability of disaggregated budget data that responds CSO requests for information needed to monitor funding for and the delivery of basic education. The report provides responses to the specific information requests, indicating where information can be found (where publicly available) or who in government is likely to be able to provide the information. It also raises interesting questions around who CSOs should engage with when advocating for more detailed and relevant budget data.
- Processes for Financing Public Basic Education in South Africa (January 2017): Learn more about how basic education is funded through national and provincial budget processes in South Africa.
- Children and South Africa’s Health Budget (October 2016): This brief looks at health budgets. It first presents and describes a set of key indicators. It then describes the structure of provincial budgets and, in particular, how one can identify funding for children’s needs. This is followed by discussion of resourcing, accessibility, and use of health services, and more detailed discussion of HIV and AIDS and nutrition.
- Children and South Africa’s Education Budget (October 2016): This brief looks at education budgets. It first presents and describes a set of key indicators. It then describes the structure of provincial budgets and source of funds. This is followed by discussion on budgeting for the foundation years, teachers, teaching and learning support materials, Grade R, and infrastructure.
- Children and South Africa’s Social Development Budget (October 2016): This brief looks at social developments budgets. It first presents and describes a set of key indicators. It then discusses how much provinces allocate for children’s services, and budgeting for prevention and early intervention services, early child development services, non-profit organizations that deliver children’s services, and child grants.
- Children and the South African Budget: The Macro Picture (October 2016): This brief presents the macro picture of government budgets in South Africa. It first presents and describes a set of key indicators. It then describes how national, provincial and municipal budgets are funded, and the transfers between the three spheres. The brief then highlights what proportions the three key sectors – education, health and social assistance and welfare – constitute of the combined national and provincial budgets. Finally, there is a short description of the budget process.
- Children and the South African Budget: Key Messages (October 2016): This presentation outlines key messages related to children and South Africa’s budget.
- Estimating the Cost of Sanitation Infrastructure for Selected Sites in Khayelitsha in City of Cape Town (April 2016): In April 2016 the International Budget Partnership South Africa and the Social Justice Coalition (SJC) commissioned Cornerstone Economic Research to develop a model to cost sanitation upgrade scenarios for informal settlements across Cape Town.
- Submission to the National Assembly Standing Committee on Appropriations on the 2016 National Budget (March 2016): In February 2016, IBP South Africa and Code4SA launched Vote4theBudget.org, an online tool developed to give South African citizens the opportunity to easily tell parliament their thoughts about the 2016/17 National Budget. Over 200 people used the site to send individual submissions to the Secretary of the Appropriations Committee. Our March 2016 Submission to the National Assembly Standing Committee on Appropriations on the 2016 National Budget provides an overview of the development of Vote4theBudget.org and a summary of all citizen submissions.
Read the submission »
- City of Cape Town Electricity Citizens Budget (April 2016): Electricity is one of the biggest parts of the City of Cape Town’s 2016/17 budget. IBP South Africa worked with the city’s electricity department to produce this citizens budget to help make the public participation process more meaningful.
City of Cape Town Electricity Citizens Budget 2016/17 »
- Public Monitoring of Government Food Security Services in South Africa: What Data Need to be Produced and Published? (February 2016): This note explores what information the South African government needs to publish to enable effective public monitoring of the delivery of food security through South Africa’s Social Relief of Distress (SRD) program.
Read more »
- Monitoring Public Procurement in South Africa: A Reference Guide for Civil Society Organizations (December 2015): This guide presents civil society organizations and other interested readers with information and tools to help monitor public procurement. The assumption is that robust oversight over public procurement in South Africa will ultimately improve service delivery, reduce corruption, and strengthen public participation.
Download the guide »
- A Guide to Conducting Social Audits in South Africa (November 2015): This guide is a collaboration between the Social Justice Coalition (SJC), Ndifuna Ukwazi (NU), and the International Budget Partnership. It aims to help community activists and organized civil society groups in South Africa think about, conduct, and reflect on social audits.
Download the guide »
- Public Monitoring of Government Mental Health Services in South Africa: What Data Needs to be Produced and Published? (October 2015): This note explores what information the government needs to publish to enable the effective public monitoring of the delivery of mental health services. Read more »
- Public Monitoring of School Infrastructure in South Africa: What Data Needs to be Produced and Published? (September 2015): This note explores what information needs to be published by government to enable the public to monitor the delivery of school infrastructure.
Read more »
- Citizens Adjusted Budget (October 2014): IBP South Africa and the Budget Monitoring Expenditure Forum published this Citizens Adjustment Budget 2014/15 — an easy to use key to unlocking the government’s very technical Adjustments Budget.