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Egypt

Open Budget Survey 2017

Downloads:
Country Summary - Arabic Country Summary - English Questionnaire
Transparency

41

out of 100
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Public Participation

11

out of 100
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Budget Oversight

39

out of 100
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IBP considers countries that score above 60 on the Open Budget Index as providing sufficient budget information to enable the public to engage in budget discussions in an informed manner. IBP considers countries scoring above 60 on participation and oversight as providing adequate opportunities for the public to participate in the budget process and providing adequate oversight practices, respectively.

Transparency (Open Budget Index)

41

out of 100

Egypt provides the public with limited budget information.

How Has the Open Budget Index Score Changed Over Time?
Recommendations for Improving Transparency

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve budget transparency:

  • Publish a Mid-Year Review, a Year-End Report, and an Audit Report online.
  • Increase the information provided in the Executive’s Budget Proposal by improving information on performance and policy and by increasing data on expenditures by publishing both the budget year’s estimates by administrative classification as well as multi-year estimates.
  • Increase the information provided in the Pre-Budget Statement.

Public Participation

11

out of 100

Egypt provides few opportunities for the public to engage in the budget process.

How Does Public Participation Compare to Other Countries in the Region?

Global Average 12/100
Egypt 11/100
Jordan 11/100
Qatar 2/100
Tunisia 2/100
Algeria 0/100
Iraq 0/100
Lebanon 0/100
Morocco 0/100
Saudi Arabia 0/100
Sudan 0/100
Yemen 0/100
Recommendations for Improving Participation

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve public participation in its budget process:

  • Pilot mechanisms for members of the public and executive branch officials to exchange views on national budget matters during both the formulation of the national budget and the monitoring of its implementation. These mechanisms could build on innovations, such as participatory budgeting and social audits. For examples of such mechanisms, see fiscaltransparency.net/mechanisms.
  • Hold legislative hearings on the formulation of the annual budget, during which members of the public or civil society organizations can testify.
  • Establish formal mechanisms for the public to assist the supreme audit institution in formulating its audit program and to participate in relevant audit investigations.

Budget Oversight (by Legislature & Audit)

39

out of 100

The legislature and supreme audit institution in Egypt provide weak oversight of the budget.

To What Extent Does the Legislature Provide Budget Oversight?

Formulation/Approval 38/100
Execution/Audit 40/100

The legislature provides weak oversight during the budget cycle. This score reflects that the legislature provides weak oversight during the planning stage of the budget cycle and weak oversight during the implementation stage of the budget cycle.

To What Extent Does the Supreme Audit Institution Provide Budget Oversight?

Weak 39/100

The supreme audit institution provides weak budget oversight.

Recommendations for Improving Oversight

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to make budget oversight more effective:

  • Ensure the legislature holds a debate on budget policy prior to the tabling of the Executive’s Budget Proposal and approves recommendations for the upcoming budget.
  • Ensure a legislative committee publishes reports on in-year budget implementation online.
  • Require legislative or judicial approval to remove the head of the supreme audit institution.
  • Consider setting up an independent fiscal institution to further strengthen budget oversight.

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The information on this page presents a partial country summary. For more detailed information, please download:


Open Budget Survey 2015

Downloads:
Country Summary - Arabic Country Summary - English Questionnaire

Transparency (Open Budget Index) 16/100 

The Government of Egypt provides the public with scant budget information.

Public Participation 8/100 

The Government of Egypt is weak in providing the public with opportunities to engage in the budget process.

Budget Oversight

By legislature 0/100

Budget oversight by the legislature in Egypt is nonexistent.1

By auditor 42/100

Budget oversight by the supreme audit institution in Egypt is limited.

Recommendations

Improving Transparency

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve budget transparency:

  • Publish in a timely manner an Executive’s Budget Proposal.
  • Publish an Audit Report.
  • Publish a Mid-Year Review.[1]
Improving Participation

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve budget participation:

  • Establish credible and effective mechanisms (i.e., public hearings, surveys, focus groups) for capturing a range of public perspectives on budget matters.
  • Reinstate the legislature and hold legislative hearings on the budgets of specific ministries, departments, and agencies at which testimony from the public is heard.
  • Establish formal mechanisms for the public to assist the supreme audit institution to formulate its audit program and to participate in audit investigations.
Improving Oversight

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to strengthen budget oversight:

  • Reinstate the legislature and establish a specialized budget research office for the legislature.
  • Ensure the Executive’s Budget Proposal is provided to legislators at least three months before the start of the budget year.
  • Require legislative or judicial approval to remove the head of the supreme audit institution.

 

[1] According to the Open Budget Survey Tracker (www.obstracker.org), the 2014-2015 Mid-Year Review, which should have been published by 31 March 2015, is considered not publicly available. The 2013-2014 Mid-Year Review, which was assessed as part of the Open Budget Survey 2015, was published in a timely manner.

 



Open Budget Survey 2010

Downloads:
Country Summary Country Summary - Arabic Questionnaire

Open Budget Survey 2008

Downloads:
Country Summary Country Summary - Arabic Questionnaire




See more on budget work in Egypt »