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Japan

Open Budget Survey 2017

Downloads:
Country Summary Questionnaire
Transparency

60

out of 100
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Public Participation

20

out of 100
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Budget Oversight

59

out of 100
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IBP considers countries that score above 60 on the Open Budget Index as providing sufficient budget information to enable the public to engage in budget discussions in an informed manner. IBP considers countries scoring above 60 on participation and oversight as providing adequate opportunities for the public to participate in the budget process and providing adequate oversight practices, respectively.

Transparency (Open Budget Index)

60

out of 100

Japan provides the public with limited budget information.

How Does Japan's Open Budget Index Score Compare?

In the Open Budget Survey 2017, this country is being assessed for the first time.

Recommendations for Improving Transparency

Japan should prioritize the following actions to improve budget transparency:

  • Produce and publish a Mid-Year Review.
  • Increase the information provided in the Pre-Budget Statement by including information on the macroeconomic forecast and estimates of total revenues and revenue policies and priorities.

Public Participation

20

out of 100

Japan provides few opportunities for the public to engage in the budget process.

How Does Public Participation Compare to Other Countries in the Region?

Global Average 12/100
New Zealand 59/100
Australia 41/100
South Korea 39/100
Japan 20/100
Fiji 15/100
China 6/100
Papua New Guinea 6/100
Recommendations for Improving Participation

Japan should prioritize the following actions to improve public participation in its budget process:

  • Pilot mechanisms for members of the public and executive branch officials to exchange views on national budget matters during the formulation of the national budget. These mechanisms could build on innovations, such as participatory budgeting and social audits. For examples of such mechanisms, see fiscaltransparency.net/mechanisms.
  • Hold legislative hearings on the formulation of the annual budget, during which members of the public or civil society organizations can testify.
  • Establish formal mechanisms for the public to assist the supreme audit institution in formulating its audit program and to participate in relevant audit investigations.

Budget Oversight (by Legislature & Audit)

59

out of 100

The legislature and supreme audit institution in Japan provide limited oversight of the budget.

To What Extent Does the Legislature Provide Budget Oversight?

Formulation/Approval 43/100
Execution/Audit 60/100

The legislature provides limited oversight during the budget cycle. This score reflects that the legislature provides limited oversight during the planning stage of the budget cycle and limited oversight during the implementation stage of the budget cycle.

To What Extent Does the Supreme Audit Institution Provide Budget Oversight?

Adequate 78/100

The supreme audit institution provides adequate budget oversight.

Recommendations for Improving Oversight

Japan should prioritize the following actions to make budget oversight more effective:

  • Ensure legislative committees publish reports on their analysis of the Executive’s Budget Proposal online.
  • Ensure a legislative committee publishes a report on in-year budget implementation online.
  • Ensure audit processes are reviewed by an independent agency.
  • Consider setting up an independent fiscal institution to further strengthen budget oversight.

Learn More

The information on this page presents a partial country summary. For more detailed information, please download:




See more on budget work in Japan »